What is Electricity?

What is electricity? Where does electricity come from? How does electricity work?

The name “electricity” is derived from the Greek word "elektor," meaning "beaming sun." In Greek, "elektron" is the word for amber. Amber is a gold-brown colored "stone" that is actually fossilized tree sap.

Electricity is a property of certain subatomic particles which couples to electromagnetic fields and causes attractive and repulsive forces between them. This repulsive force between the subatomic particles creates an electric current; the flow of electric charge transports energy from one atom to another. The electrical current is measured in amperes, where 1 ampere is the flow of 62,000,000,000,000,000,000 electrons per second!

Wait just a minute……help me understand all that! To understand electricity we must first understand atoms and their structure.

All matter is made up of atoms, and atoms are made up of smaller particles. The three main particles making up an atom are the proton, the neutron and the electron.

Electrons spin around the center, or nucleus, of atoms, in the same way the earth spins around the sun. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons.

Electrons contain a negative charge, protons a positive charge. Neutrons are neutral — they have neither a positive nor a negative charge.

There are many different kinds of atoms, one for each type of element. An atom is a single part that makes up an element. There are 118 different known elements. The mass accumulation of elements makes up every thing we can see, touch, hear, and smell (elements are even in things we can’t see).

Each atom has a specific number of electrons, protons and neutrons. But no matter how many particles an atom has, the number of electrons usually needs to be the same as the number of protons. If the numbers are the same, the atom is called balanced, and it is very stable.

Some kinds of atoms have loosely attached electrons. An atom that loses electrons has more protons than electrons and is positively charged. An atom that gains electrons has more negative particles and is negatively charge. A "charged" atom is called an "ion."

The very nature of a positive atom is that it attracts electrons (negative charged atoms) to in effect balance the positive atom. Why, not sure, and for this article not pertinent. What is necessary to know is that the flow of elections to protons is essence of electricity.

You see electrons can be engineered to move from one atom to another. When those electrons move between the atoms, a current or flow of electricity is created. The electrons move from one atom to another in a "flow." One electron is attached and another electron is lost. This creates a continual equilibrium amongst the atoms.

Engineers however have found several ways to create large numbers of positive atoms and free negative electrons. Since positive atoms want negative electrons so they can be balanced, they have a strong attraction for the electrons. The manufactured disequilibrium creates a state of continuous flow of electrons to atoms with an overpopulation of protons (positive atoms).

When electrons move from atom to atom a current of electricity is created. This is what happens in a piece of wire. The electrons are passed from atom to atom, creating an electrical current from one end to other end.

There are two possible types of electric flow, direct current flow and alternating current flow. Direct current means that the flow of charges is in one direction. A battery produces direct current (DC) because there is no way to change the + and – you see on the battery. Alternating current (AC) has electrons in the circuit that quickly move first in one direction and then in the opposite direction, alternating back and forth between relatively fixed positions. When you use a transformer, you are using AC. PDAs, cellular phones and other common items use an AC adapter or transformer which helps extend the longevity of the item.

Until next time – Dan Hagopian, BatteryShip.com
Copyright © BatteryEducation.com. All rights reserved.

Internal Battery Design

The wireless revolution, the prolific use of PDAs, MP3s, MP4s, Laptops, Cell Phones, Smartphones, DVD players, and other portable devices have increased the need for smart and high capacity portable batteries.

Portable batteries however are not typical in design. Indeed the battery that powers your portable device is what is known as a smart battery and as such the internal system design of a smart battery is more complex then most people realize.

To begin with high powered portable devices require an electrical current. There are two types of electrical current (direct current flow and alternating current flow). Direct current means that the flow of charge is in one direction. A battery produces direct current (DC) because there is no way to change the + and – you see on the battery.

In order to create direct electrical current electrons must be caused to break away from atoms to create an electron flow. Why? The answer is because electricity is a property of certain subatomic particles (protons, electrons, and neutrons) which couples to electromagnetic fields and causes attractive and repulsive forces between them; by doing so an electrical flow is created, and this is where electricity comes from. Let’s explain!

Scientists have found ways to create large numbers of positive atoms and free negative electrons (in other words they have found ways to separate electrons from atoms). Since overpopulated proton (positive) atoms want electrons (negative) so they can be balanced, these positive atoms have a strong attraction for electrons. The manufactured disequilibrium creates a state of continuous flow of electrons to atoms with an overpopulation of protons (positive atoms). When electrons move from one atom to another atom a current of electron flow (which is how we get electricity) is created.

This current can then be captured, stored, and used to power a potable device. In a portable battery the creation of electricity begins with a chemical reaction. To cause electrons to break away from atoms a chemical reaction must occur. In PDA batteries for example lithium ion or lithium polymer is used. Lithium is used due in large part to its superior energy density in terms of power per unit of weight and space.

General Characteristics of Lithium

Name: lithium
Symbol: Li
Atomic number: 3
Atomic weight: [ 6.941 (2)] g m r
CAS Registry ID: 7439-93-2
Group number: 1
Group name: Alkali metal
Period number: 2
Block: s-block
Standard state: solid at 298 K
color: silvery white/grey
Classification: Metallic

Lithium is used, amongst many other uses, as a battery anode material (due to its high electrochemical potential) and lithium compounds are used in dry cells and storage batteries. In fact the energy of some lithium-based cells can be five times greater than an equivalent-sized lead-acid cell and three times greater than alkaline batteries. Lithium cells often have a starting voltage of 3.0 V. This means that batteries can be lighter in weight, have lower per-use costs, and have higher and more stable voltage profiles.

In PDA batteries, for example, lithium is converted from chemical energy to electrical energy. This process then makes a battery an electrochemical device that stores chemical energy and releases it as electrical energy upon demand.

Chemical reactions are strongly influenced by their environment. The environment of an internal battery includes design parameters, current requirements, capacity and runtime requirements, temperature requirements, and safety requirements.

Critical to battery design is knowing how much voltage is required? Voltage is the electrical measure of energy. To know the voltage requirements we need to know the upper and lower voltage range (nominal range).

The second key component to know about a battery is its current requirements. PDAs, MP3s and other portable devices, for the most part, utilize a constant power discharge to operate. This means that the amount of current will increase as the battery discharges electricity in order to maintain constant power. So we will need to ultimately know the maximum current required. This is important since knowing the max current requirement will influence the necessary protection of chemistry, circuitry, wire, and capacity amongst others. Again we must know the current requirement over the entire nominal voltage range of the battery including start-up currents, surges (intermittent transient pulses).

One other important aspect to know about current requirements is the inert current drain of the device. Devices, even when powered down, require small amounts of current to power memory, switches and component leakage.

The third key requirement to know is the necessary battery capacity and runtime. This will define the overall physical size of the battery. Capacity and runtime is measured in Amperes. Amps – or A – is an abbreviation of Ampere, a 19th century French scientist who was a pioneer in electricity research. Amps measure the volume of electrons passing through a wire in a one second. The electrical current is measured in amperes, where 1 ampere is the flow of 62,000,000,000,000,000,000 electrons per second!

Amp hours – or Ah – measures capacity. Amp hours is what is ultimately important to consumers as it is the capacity or amp hours that tells us how long we can expect a battery to deliver a charge before it runs out. As with all metric measurements, Amps can be divided into smaller (or larger) units by adding a prefix, in this case by adding an "m" to the amp hour we are renaming the amp hour to milli amp hour: mAh; (1Ah = 1000 mAh).

When we consider the design capacity we must determine the chemical needed to insure that the necessary runtime will be met. Lithium is used because of its electrochemical properties. Lithium is part of the alkali family of metals a group of highly reactive metals. Li reacts steadily with water. In addition the per unit volume of lithium packs the greatest energy density and weight available for this grouping of reactive metals.

Ambient operational temperatures are also important because the internal heat of the battery compartment will dramatically affect the life of a battery. Usage and storage patterns are external effect that will also affect battery life and are the responsibility of a user (for example do not leave your device in a hot car with the windows rolled up, or take your device into a sauna).

A safety requirement for a battery that contains lithium requires protection circuitry to prevent the cells in the battery from conditions like over charge, over discharge, high currents, and or short circuits. Protected circuits consists of integrated circuits (programmed digital circuits), several field-effect transistors (FET) that control the current between two points, and resistors (a two-terminal electronic component that resists the flow of current, producing a voltage drop between its terminals). These circuits add cost and space to the battery pack requirements and careful placement is required in physical layouts to preserve system integrity.

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) or protection from electrostatic discharge is another safety concern. EMI, radiated or conducted, can occur throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. The primary problem with EMI is the disruption of performance of electronics. In wireless devices EMI can cause attenuation losses in signal strength and noise during transmission. Battery packs act as radiated sources of EMI and therefore shielding measures must be taken to reduce and or prevent EMI.

Another aspect of lithium battery design is the concept of smart batteries. A smart battery stores, monitors, prevents, and transmits critical battery information stored within the battery.

A smart battery will communicate with the host device through a connector to provide information about remaining capacity, battery voltage, error conditions, cycles completed, internal temperature, current, and several other factors. A smart battery can request a conditioning cycle, which will fully discharge a battery pack and then recharge it to allow the internal remaining capacity value to be accurately calibrated. Smart batteries often have an LED or LCD display that will allow the user to check the state of charge of a battery prior to use.

Lithium based smart batteries typically use coulomb counting to determine capacity, which means the circuit monitors the capacity in and out of the battery by measuring voltage across a sense resistor. For example 1 coulomb is the amount of electric charge carried by a current of 1 ampere flowing for 1 second. Coulomb counting is based on Coulombs law that states that the magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the magnitudes of each charge and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges.

This review of the internal design of a battery was extensive. By no means thorough. I hope it offers you a basic under the hood understanding of what is inside your battery and how it works.

Until next time – Dan Hagopian, BatteryShip.com
Copyright © BatteryEducation.com. All rights reserved.

What is Battery Capacity?

Batteries die! It is a natural process of utilizing the useful life of a battery reaches the point of of no longer holding a charge. There are technical reasons why batteries degrade and lose their ability to power a device that include: declining capacity, increasing internal resistance, elevated self-discharge, and premature voltage cut-off on discharge.

Today I want to write about battery capacity and its impact within the design of a battery.

What is Battery Capacity?

Battery capacity is a reference to the total amount of energy stored within a battery. Battery capacity is rated in Ampere-hours (AH), which is the product of:

AH= Current X Hours to Total Discharge

The capacity is normally tested or compared with a time of 20 hours and at a temperature of 68F (20C).

Five Factors that Govern Battery Capacity

Physical Size – the amount of capacity that can be stored in the casing of any battery depends on the volume and plate area of the actual battery. The more volume and plate area the more capacity you can actually store in a battery.

Temperature – capacity, energy store decreases as a battery gets colder. High temperatures also have an effect on all other aspects of your battery.

Cut off Voltage – To prevent damage to the battery and the device batteries have an internal mechanism that stops voltage called the cut-off voltage, which is tpically limited to 1.67V or 10V for a 12 Volt battery. Letting a battery self-discharge to zero destroys the battery.

Discharge rate – The rate of discharge, the rate at which a battery goes from a full charge to the cut off voltage measured in amperes. As the rate goes up, the capacity goes down.

Battery History – Deep discharging, excessive cycling, age, over charging, under charging, all reduce capacity. Note charging your battery 1 time will reduce capacity as much as 15%-20% depending on your battery's chemistry.

Until next time – Dan Hagopian, BatteryShip.com
Copyright © BatteryEducation.com. All rights reserved.

Battery Voltage

What is battery voltage? I think we talk around the real definition so much we actually begin to believe that we understand what it means when in reality we do not. Even I was just commenting to my wife that I wish I paid more attention while I was in my college electronic classes so that I too could understand the very basics of voltage . For my benefit as well as yours let us go back to the basics of what battery voltage really means and how the work it conducts inside your battery affects the other technical factors of your battery.

Italian physicist Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (February 18, 1745 – March 5, 1827) grew up with a passion for electricity. In 1775 he devised the electrophorus, a device that produced a static electric charge. In 1776-77 he studied the chemistry of gases, discovered methane, and devised experiments such as the ignition of gases by an electric spark in a closed vessel.

In 1800 he developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery, which produced a steady electric current. Creating a cell, a wine goblet filled with brine into which the two dissimilar electrodes were dipped, Volta placed together several pairs of alternating copper (or silver) and zinc discs separated by cloth and soaked the cloth in brine (salt water) to increase conductivity, and an electrical current was produced. The electric pile ultimately replaced the goblets with cardboard soaked in brine. The number of cells, and thus the voltage the electric pile could produce, was limited by the pressure, and exerted by the upper cells that would squeeze all of the brine out of the cardboard of the bottom cell.The electric pile was the first electric battery.

In 1881 the electrical unit we know today, the volt, was named in Volta’s honor. From the first battery, mentioned above, we can derive a definition of voltage as: Volts – or V – are an electrical measure of energy potential. Voltage can also be thought of as the amount of "pressure" of electrons that pass from a negative connector to a positive connector. Or V can be defined as the measure of the strength of an electrical source of power for a given current level.

Voltage can also be defined as Electrical Potential difference – a quantity in physics related to the amount of energy that would be required to move an object from one place to another against various types of force. In the fields of electronics the electrical potential difference is the amount of work per charge needed to move electric charge from the second point to the first, or equivalently, the amount of work that unit charge flowing from the first point to the second can perform.

Mathematically voltage is commonly measured by V= I x R; where V=Voltage, I=Current, R=Resistance.

Beyond the definition what challenges many is the confusion that a battery contains four unique types of voltage measurements. Each voltage measurement type residing in a battery effects battery life.

  • Float Voltage – is battery voltage at zero current (with battery disconnected).
  • Nominal Voltage – is battery voltage range 3.7V, 5.2V, 10.2V, 12V etc that says that a voltage range exists depending on the number of cells in the battery. For example a 12 Volt battery is made of 6 cells and has a Float voltage of about 12V.
  • Charge Voltage – The voltage of a battery while charging.
  • Discharge Voltage – The voltage of a battery while discharging. Again, this voltage is determined by the charge state and the current flowing in the battery.

Here are a few examples of how the voltage types measurments interact with one another in the same battery:

Number of Cells

Nominal Voltage

Fully-Charged Float Voltage

Fully-Discharged Float Voltage

Discharge Voltage at Ah/20

Charge Voltage at Ah/5





2.0 – 1.7

2.1 – 2.30





12 – 10.2

12.6 – 13.8





24 – 20.4

25.2 – 27.6

Until next time Dan Hagopian www.batteryship.com
Copyright © BatteryEducation.com. All rights reserved.

What is A Battery?

A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries have two electrodes, an anode (the positive end) and a cathode (the negative end). In between the battery’s two electrodes runs an electrical current caused primarily from a voltage differential between the anode and cathode. The voltage runs through a chemical called an electrolyte (which can be either liquid or solid). This battery consisting of two electrodes is called a voltaic cell.

The first inclination that an electrical path-way from an anode to a cathode within a battery or in this first instance “a frog” occurred in 1786, when Count Luigi Galvani (an Italian anatomist, 1737-1798) found that when the muscles of a dead frog were touched by two pieces of different metals, the muscle tissue twitched.

This led to idea by Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (Feb. 18, 1745- March 5, 1827), an Italian physicist who realized that the twitching was caused by an electrical current that was created by chemicals. Volta’s discovery led to the invention of the chemical battery (also called the voltaic pile) in 1800. His first voltaic piles were made from zinc and silver plates (separated by a cloth) put in a salt water bath. Volta improved the pile, using zinc and copper in a weak sulfuric acid bath and thus invented the first generator of continuous electrical current.

In 1820, the French physicist André-Marie Ampère discovered many of the laws governing the relationship between electricity and magnetism, along with how a battery works. Ampere found that electrical current move through conductors, and that electrical charges flow from one electrode to the other. Ampere invented the astatic needle, which detected electrical currents.

In an interesting side bar regarding Ampère and Volta:

From Volta’s work we get the Volt – or V – which is an electrical measure of energy potential. For example you can think of energy potential as the pressure being exerted by all the electrons of a PDA Battery’s negative terminal as they try to move to the positive terminal.

From Ampère’s work we get Amps – or A – which is measures the volume of electrons passing through a wire in a one second. One Amp equals 6.25 x 1018 electrons per second.

From both Volts and Amps we get the formula for a battery’s full potential measured in Watts: Volts x Amps = Watts. Watts are important because a watt represents the electrical energy spent by a battery (power generator) and used by an electrical device. Watts in effect is the measure of the amount of work done by certain amperage (amount) of electric current at a certain pressure or voltage.

The batteries we use today are simply variations of the early battery or voltaic pile. Today’s battery’s are made up of plates of reactive chemicals separated by barriers, being polarized so all the electrons gather on one side. The side that all the electrons gather on becomes negatively charged, and the other side becomes positively charged. Connecting a device creates a current and the electrons flow through the device to the positive side. At the same time, an electrochemical reaction takes place inside the batteries to replenish the electrons.

The effect is a chemical process that creates electrical energy with one downside: about 80 percent of the energy put into batteries is lost through this process.

Though the battery maybe inefficient we still need the battery, especially battery replacements that are inexpensive. We are power hungry consumers. We like our power and lot’s of it. Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ions) are generally considered the most powerful, offering the same energy as nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, with 20 to 30 percent less weight. They are expensive compared to older battery technologies, but are valued for high-power portable applications, such as laptops, cell phones, and PDAs.

Until next time – Dan Hagopian, BatteryShip.com

Integrated Power Management Circuits

Integrated Power Management Circuits protects against over-voltage, and under-voltage conditions and they maximize battery life between charges, minimize charging times, and improve overall battery life.

Discussing internal battery design would be incomplete if we did not write on the subject of integrated circuits. Batteries that can be bought at BatteryShip.com for PDAs, MP3s, Digital Cameras, and Laptops have designed within them integrated power management circuits that insure that the deliverance of reliable power is properly managed. Without these power management integrated circuits even fine tuned handhelds will exhibit problems such as over-voltage, and under-voltage conditions. Incidentally, overcharging is potentially a very dangerous problem. Overcharging is the state of charging a battery beyond its electrical capacity, which can lead to a battery explosion, leakage, or irreversible damage to the battery. It may also cause damage to the charger or device in which the overcharged battery is later used.

But let us take a step back a moment to build a platform with which to discuss power management integrated circuits. At its most basic level an integrated circuit in general is a miniaturized electronic circuit. An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path for current. The goals of integrated circuits are multifaceted, for example when designing for signal processing integrated circuits apply a predefined operation on potential differences (measured in volts) or currents (measured in amperes). Typical functions for such electrical networks are amplification, oscillation and analog linear algorithmic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation and integration.   

For batteries the use of integrated circuits with the goal of power management is integrated battery management which include voltage regulation and charging functions. Power management integrated circuits offer other key benefits as well including maximizing battery life between charges, minimize charging times, and improve battery life.

The other critical aspect of power management integrated circuits is their functioning design to detect and monitor voltage levels in batteries. When certain parameter thresholds are exceeded or dangerous conditions exist, these “supervisory circuits” react through a programmable logic design to protect the monitored system and correct problems as programmed. Supervisory circuits are known by a variety of names, including battery monitors, power supply monitors, supply supervisory circuits and reset circuits. They perform critical functions including power-on-reset (POR) protection to ensure that processors always start at the same address during power-up. Without POR, even well-functioning systems can exhibit problems during power-up, power-down, overvoltage, and undervoltage conditions.   

A real example of a battery pack protector circuit is a Texas Instrument two-cell lithium-ion (Li-Ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-Pol) battery pack protector device. The device’s primary function is to protect both Li-Ion and Li-Pol cells in a two-cell battery pack from being either over-charged (over-voltage) or over-discharged (under-voltage). It employs a precision band-gap voltage reference that is used to detect when either cell is approaching an over-voltage or under-voltage state. When on-board logic detects either condition, the series FET (field effect transistor) switch opens to protect the cells. (Side bar: a FET is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the conductivity of a particlular 'channel' in a semiconductor material. FETs at times are used as voltage-controlled resistors).

I won’t be getting anymore technical as this topic is better left to engineers. But suffice to say power management integrated circuits are a critical design aspect of your handheld battery. Without these integrated circuits your handheld device would have stopped working a long while back.

Until next time – Dan Hagopian, BatteryShip.com
Copyright © BatteryEducation.com. All rights reserved.

Amps, Volts, and mAh

Batteries have electrical specifications that include its volt and milliAmp hour rating. These terms are abbreviated as we see in the following example: 3.7 V, 1600 mAh.

What do these terms mean, and why should you care about the specifications of pda batteries?

Volts – or V – are an electrical measure of energy potential. You can think of it as the pressure being exerted by all the electrons of a PDA Batteries negative terminal as they try to move to the positive terminal.

Amps – or A – is an abbreviation of Ampere, a 19th century French scientist who was a pioneer in electricity research. Amps measure the volume of electrons passing through a wire in a one second. One Amp equals 6.25 x 1018 electrons per second.

Amp hours – or Ah – measures capacity. That is what we want to know about PDA Batteries – how long can it deliver a certain amount of charge before it runs out. As with all metric measurements, Amps can be divided into smaller (or larger) units by adding a prefix.

In the case of batteries for PDAs, digital cameras, and laptops, a milliAmp hour (mAh) is most commonly used. Note that 1000 mAh is the same a 1 Ah. (Just as 1000mm equals 1 meter.) Note that Amp hours do not dictate the flow of electrons at any given moment. Batteries with a 1 Amp hour rating could deliver ½ Amp of current for 2 hours, or they could provide 2 Amps of current for ½ hour.

Typically, PDA Batteries will use 1 to 3 Amps per hour, depending on the model's processor speed, screen size, screen brightness adjustment, usage, and other factors.

Keep in mind that slight variations in voltage generally do not impact the performance of your device. We see this all the time with universal and external batteries. The original battery might be specified at 10.8 Volts, but customers using a universal part can operate their laptop, for example, safely at either the 10 or 11 Volt setting.

Until next time – Dan Hagopian, BatteryShip.com
Copyright © BatteryEducation.com. All rights reserved.

BatteryEducation.com Articles

BatteryEducation.com – a website resource that includes helpful articles on Battery Replacements, Battery News, and Battery Technologies. Throughout this battery resource you will find articles covering a wide variety of battery topics.


  1. Battery Charging
  2. Battery Self Discharge Rates
  3. Lithium – Who Uses It – Part 1
  4. What Battery Chemistry Type is Better To Use With Power Tools?
  5. Lithium Cell Manufacturing Part 5
  6. Lithium Cell Manufacturing Part 4
  7. Lithium Cell Manufacturing Part 3
  8. Lithium Cell Manufacturing Part 2
  9. Lithium Cell Manufacturing Part 1
  10. Lithium Air Batteries
  11. What is the Total Equivalent Lithium Content of My Battery?
  12. What Raw Minerals Are Used To Make a Battery?
  13. How Do Generic Aftermarket Batteries Compare with Name Brand Batteries?
  14. How Long Will My Battery Last?
  15. How Green Are Batteries?
  16. Lithium Battery Chemistries
  17. How Many Cells Are In A Battery?
  18. Voltage Failure Modes
  19. Battery Manufacturing and Cell Grades – Part 2
  20. Battery Manufacturing and Battery Cell Grades – Part 1
  21. Rechargeable Batteries Can Only Be Charged 300-500 Times – Part 2
  22. Rechargeable Batteries Can Only Be Charged 300-500 Times – Part 1
  23. How Many Times Can I Charge My Battery?
  24. Lithium Ion Batteries Are Sensitive to Heat
  25. Digital Memory Effect on Batteries
  26. Battery Safety Guidelines
  27. Battery Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Part 3
  28. Battery Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Part 2
  29. Battery Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Part 1
  30. Seal Lead Acid Batteries
  31. What Materials Are Used To Make A Battery?
  32. Understanding Battery Life – Part 3
  33. Understanding Battery Life – Part 2
  34. Understanding Battery Life – Part 1
  35. Common Causes of Battery Failure – Part 2
  36. Common Causes of Battery Failure – Part 1
  37. Dissecting A Smart Battery – Part 3
  38. Dissecting A Smart Battery – Part 2
  39. Dissecting A Smart Battery – Part 1
  40. What is Inside A Smart Battery?
  41. Batteries – One Size Does Not Fit All
  42. Brand New Batteries? How “Fresh” Are They? How Old is the Battery Stock? Will They Work?
  43. The Battery – Cathodes, Anodes, and Electrodes (Part 2 of 2)!
  44. The Battery – Cathodes, Anodes, and Electrodes (Part 1 of 2)!
  45. Lithium Solid Polymer Electrolyte Batteries
  46. What You Need To Know About Lithium Ion Batteries
  47. Lithium ion Rechargeable Batteries
  48. Battery Recall – Are Lithium Batteries Safe?
  49. How Do Batteries Work?
  50. Temperature Affects Batteries
  51. Batteries That Overheat Stop Working
  52. What Causes Batteries to Fail?
  53. Battery Chemistry Types
  54. Integrated Power Management Circuits
  55. What is A Battery?
  56. Battery Voltage
  57. What is Battery Capacity
  58. Internal Battery Design
  59. What is electricity?
  60. What is the Difference Between Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer?
  61. Watts are Volts x Amps?
  62. What is A Watt?
  63. Amps and Volts: Battery Basics?
  64. Amps, Volts, and mAh
  65. Energy Potential of Lithium
  66. Battery Degradation and Power Loss
  67. Battery Chemistry
  1. 100 Million iPod Batteries
  2. What is Inside My iPod Battery?
  3. iPod Battery Capacity
  4. The 24 Hour iPod Battery
  5. Batteries That Overheat Stop Working
  6. My iPod Displays an Exclamation Point and Folder Icon?
  7. Technical Reasons Why iPod Batteries Die
  8. iPod Battery Charging Tips
  9. iPod Battery Diagnostics
  10. How Long will My iPod Play
  11. iPod Battery Technical Facts
  12. How Long will My iPod Video Play?

  1. How to Fix Your iPod 5 Easy Repairs

Battery Replacement Instructions

Digital Camera Batteries
  1. Memory Effect – Digital Camera Battery
  1. How to buy a laptop battery?
  2. Buying Batteries: How To Buy A Battery?
  3. Battery and Electricity Vocabulary
  4. Buying Batteries – Brand New, Used or Refurbished?
  5. Hard Reset or Soft Reset On Your iPAQ
  6. How Long Will My Battery Last?
  7. iPaq Battery – iPaq PDA History

Battery Buying Guides

Reference Charts
  1. TomTom GPS Battery Reference Chart
  2. Garmin GPS Battery Reference Chart
  3. Makita Power Tool Battery Reference Chart
  4. Hitachi Power Tool Battery Reference Chart
  5. Milwaukee Power Tool Battery Reference Chart
  6. Panasonic Power Tool Battery Reference Chart
  7. Paslode Power Tool Battery Reference Chart
  8. Ryobi Power Tool Battery Reference Chart
  9. Dewalt Power Tool Battery Reference Chart
  10. Bosh Power Tool Battery Reference Chart
  11. Power Tool Battery References

About Battery Education

Battery Education is a blog that offers a basic understanding of battery technology, battery uses, and technical elements of battery's for portable devices. BatteryEducation.com is sponsored by www.BatteryShip.com.

BatteryShip delivers exceptional batteries, great service, and the best price possible. We select batteries from only the highest quality manufacturers to insure that you receive the longest lasting battery for your device.

Batteryeducation.com is written and maintained by Dan Hagopian.

Copyright © BatteryEducation.com. All rights reserved.