Common types of lithium based batteries are in use currently and they include but not limited to:
- Lithium Ion (Li-ion)
- Lithium Polymer (Li-po)
- Lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2)
- Lithium-sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2)
- Lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2)
Lithium Ion (Li-ion)
- The lightest of all metals
- The greatest electrochemical potential
- The largest energy density for weight.
- The load characteristics are reasonably good in terms of discharge.
- The high cell voltage of 3.6 volts allows battery pack designs with only one cell versus three.
- Is is a low maintenance battery.
- No memory and no scheduled cycling is required to prolong the battery's life.
- Lithium-ion cells
- cause little harm when disposed.
- It is fragile and requires a protection circuit to maintain safe operation.
- Cell temperature is monitored to prevent temperature extremes.
- Capacity deterioration is noticeable after one year (whether the battery is in use or not).
- The lithium-polymer differentiates itself from the conventional battery in the type of electrolyte used (a plastic-like film that does not conduct electricity but allows ion exchange – electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms).
- The polymer electrolyte replaces the traditional porous separator, which is soaked with electrolyte.
- The dry polymer design offers simplifications with respect to fabrication, ruggedness, safety and thin-profile geometry.
- Cell thickness measures as little as one millimeter (0.039 inches).
- Can be formed and shaped in any way imagined.
- Commercial lithium-polymer batteries are hybrid cells that contain gelled electrolyte to enhane conductivity.
- Gelled electrolyte added to the lithium-ion-polymer replaces the porous separator. The gelled electrolyte is simply added to enhance ion conductivity.
- Capacity is slightly less than that of the standard lithium-ion battery.
- Lithium-ion-polymer finds its market niche in wafer-thin geometries, such as PDA batteries.
- Improved safety – more resistant to overcharge; less chance for electrolyte leakage.
Lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2)
- Lithium-manganese dioxide cells have a metallic lithium anode (the lightest of all the metals) and a solid manganese dioxide cathode.
- Lithium-manganese dioxide cells are immersed in a non-corrosive, non-toxic organic electrolyte.
- They deliver a voltage of 2.8 V and are cylindrical in shape, in 1/2 AA to D format, with spiral electrodes.
Lithium-sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2)
- Lithium-sulphur dioxide cells have a metallic lithium anode (the lightest of all the metals) and a liquid cathode comprising a porous carbon current collector filled with a sulphur dioxide (SO2) solution.
- They deliver a voltage of 2.8 V and are cylindrical in shape, in ½ AA to double-D format, with spiral electrodes.
- Lithium-sulphur dioxide cells have a high energy density (250 Wh/kg) and a good capability for delivering repeated bursts of high power (up to 400 W/kg), derived from the spiral construction and is utilised in most of the applications addressed by this type of cell.
Lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2)
- Lithium-thionyl chloride cells have a metallic lithium anode (the lightest of all the metals) and a liquid cathode comprising a porous carbon current collector filled with thionyl chloride (SOCl2).
They deliver a voltage of 3.6 V and are cylindrical in shape, in 1/2AA to D format, with spiral electrodes for power applications and bobbin construction for prolonged discharge.
Until next time – Dan Hagopian, BatteryShip.com
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